Banana Ripening Room Supervisor Salary Survey Data

Economic Research Institute has published yearly salary survey results for banana ripeners for 100 US cities.  Chicago is highest at $105,679, with McAllen, Texas coming in at #100, $81,611.

The survey is copyright protected, and can be viewed here.


Thanks for reading!

Banana Jim,


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Jet Precooler Provides Affordable Forced-Air Cooling to Preserve Freshness

(Media, PA USA)

If you are a farmer or packhouse looking to rapidly cool your fresh fruit, vegetables, or floral, the Jet Precooler might be exactly what you are looking for.

The Jet Precooler, offered by Global Cooling Inc. of the USA, is provided in a kit, and is special engineered for rapid cooling for fresh produce and floral.

“We introduced the product line early in 2011,” explained Jim Still of Global Cooling, “in response to a near void of effective and affordable precooling equipment in the market.  Thus far, demand has been quite brisk.” forced air precooler

The Jet Precooler kit includes (2) high volume high pressure suction fans, with premium efficiency motors.  “We also include our tarps and foam pads, as well as a motor speed controller (variable frequency drive) and air pressure gage,” so that the operator can rest assured of a complete system that works well together.

Upon delivery, the farm or packhouse uses local labor to assemble all, with Global providing drawings and details for guidance, thereby saving double markups on equipment supply, and contractors’ priced labor.

The Jet Precooler is placed in an existing cold room, which has enough cooling capacity and airflow to work with the Jet unit, and pull field- or packhouse-heat out of up to 10 pallets at a time.  The Jet airflow typically will reduce the produce temperature to within 4 to 5 degrees fahrenheit of the room temperature.

The two fans together can move more than 20,000 cfm (42,475 cmh) at high static pressure.  “We are also trying to demistify this business a little,” continued Still.  “A lot of the companies in this space, do not like to have the customer understand how it works.”

“For example, by providing the air pressure gage, and motor speed controller, there is now a simple ‘feedback loop’, allowing the operator to optimize performance based on commodity, or number of pallets, or packaging.  This can reduce moisture loss, and save on electricity.”

There are “big brothers” of the Jet Precooler, the Jet-Plus and the KD Precooler, too.

The Jet-Plus Precooler also includes a large cooling coil (evaporator), for facilities that need more cooling capacity to go with their Jet Precooler.

Finally, for the best all-in precooling, Global offers the KD Precooler, in which the suction fans and cooling coil are offered in even larger size, and combined into a unitized air handling unit, so that all of the air sucked through the produce, is also moved through the cooling coil, without possibility of hot air bypass.

“The KD Precooler,” said Still, “assures there aren’t any ‘hot spots’, and assures the highest relative humidity level.”

Global also offers condensing units, if there is not enough capacity onsite, and installation and consulting services.

For more information, contact:  Jim Still, President, Global Cooling Inc.


Posted in Ripening | 2 Comments

Forklift Exhaust turns carrots into Horse Food…

An Australian farmer thought she was doing everything right, but didn’t know about ethylene from internal combusion engines…An excerpt.

“Getting the grading / packing line up and running properly
took a couple of days, then we were ready to roll. By now
the high humidity cool room was getting full with bins of
washed carrots. I grabbed one from a bin harvested on
day one to have a bite – it tasted awful and bitter! What
had happened? I knew that the same batch coming in
from the field had been very sweet. Then it dawned on me
– we had used a gas forklift inside the cool room over the
last four days. Our door curtains and policy of keeping the
room closed at all times, had allowed enough ethylene to
build up to turn the carrots bitter. The first batch was the
worst and it had to go to the horses; electric forklifts were
hired straight away.”

Read the entire article:  Forklift-exhaust-turns-carrots-into-horse-food.

Thanks for reading!  Banana Jim

Feel free to email us with any questions.

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Postharvest Links

For personal use only.

Ripe Bananas Glow Blue Under UV Light

UC Davis – New technology for Working with Ethylene

UC Davis – Ethylene Might Accelerate Deteriorization of Perishables

UC Davis Guestbook

UC Davis Postharvest Facts

All UC Davis Publications organized by Topic

Xtension is an interactive learning environment delivering the best, most researched knowledge from the smartest land-grant university minds across America…


USDA Handbook 66

Humidity Explained

Plant Physiology

Newton – Ask a Scientist

Thanks for reading!  Banana Jim

Feel free to email us with any questions.

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Vertical Airflow Precooling Doubles Capacity in Same Floor Space

Vertical Airflow Precoolers allow packhouses to double or triple daily throughput, without adding on to the building.

vertical airflow precooler

vertical airflow precooler

The 2-tier forced-air cooling systems, allow packhouse operators to go up, and not out, to increase capacity.

Precooling is the term, for quickly lowering the temperature of fresh cut fruit and vegetables, to ideal storage conditions.  Often the produce is harvested at 85F (30C), and then quickly cooled to 32F (0C), in a matter on hours.  Precooling is also required, after already cooled product is “re-packed”, where it can again rise in temperature, to 45F (7C.)

Vertical Airflow Precoolers use pallet racking, so that pallets of hot fruit or veg, can be cooled stacked 2-high.  If 12 pallets occupy a floorspace footprint, with a tarped tunnel precooler, the vertical airflow design allows 24 pallets to be cooled in that same space.

The vertical design also eliminates the traditional precooling problem of “last pallets to cool”, which is typically those two pallet positions furthest from the suction fan or fans.  So the design also precools faster, at the same time it physically doubles precooling pallet positions.  With the faster cooling times, capacity can actually triple.

Evaporator (cooling coil) , and compressor/condenser requirements are obviously larger as well.  Capacity can be quickly added to existing refrigeration systems by supplying a packaged chiller system or systems.

More information about Vertical Airflow Precooling is available from Global Cooling Inc.

Or email to:

vertical airflow precooler

vertical airflow precooler

Posted in Ripening | 1 Comment

World’s Most Accurate Ethylene Sensors Available Now

Accurate and affordable ethylene sensors can control ripening and de-greening to precise levels of ethylene gas.  The sensors eliminate the guesswork of ethylene gassing, with a typical setpoint of 20 parts per million (ppm) for ripening, and 4 to 5 ppm for de-greening.

“Our ethylene sensors are accurate to within 2% of full scale,” explained Jim Still of Global Cooling, Inc., the company that offers the patented sensors.  “That’s better than 1 ppm accuracy for our 0 to 20 ppm sensor.”

Global has field-tested the sensors, and is confident in their performance.  “We have a ripening client, who has been gassing bananas to 20 ppm, for more than a year, and it works every time, extremely reliable.”  The ethylene sensors and controllers are designed to work well with both Catalytic Generators® and cylinder gas.

“We are not particularly fond of using pure ethylene gas from cylinders for de-greening or ripening,” explained Still.  “But if you are going to use pure ethylene, our sensors can give you a measure of safety you have never had before.”

The ethylene sensors also minimize the use, and expense, of gassing supplies, including both liquid ethylene concentrate, and cylinder gas – whether pure ethylene or banana gas.

“Maybe the most important aspect of using the sensors for low level gassing,” continued Still, “is that when use ‘just enough’ ethylene gas, you don’t unintentionally ripen the fruit in the adjacent rooms, and do not pollute your entire warehouse with ethylene gas.”

The ethylene sensors are available in both 0 to 20 ppm, and 0 to 100 ppm ranges, and come with a two-year guarantee.

Global also offers sensors for carbon dioxide and relative humidity, as well as ultrasonic humidifiers and air sanitizers.

“If you are presently using glass tubes to sample your ethylene gas levels,” concluded Still, “one of our ethylene sensors can pay for itself in short order, by eliminating the cost and time required by the glass tubes.”

Global’s online sensor store can be found here:

Or see more information here:

Thanks for reading!  Banana Jim

Send me an eMail.

ethylene sensor

ethylene sensor

Posted in ethylene ripening, Ripening | Tagged , , | 5 Comments

Names for fruit and vegetables in different parts of the world.

The same produce commodity items, are known by different names in different countries.

Here’s a list.

To find: See:
Abogado Avocado
Alligator pear Avocado
Alfalfa sprouts Sprouts
Anon Sapodilla
Apple cactus Dragon fruit
Apple pear Asian pear
Araçá boi Arazá fruit
Avocat Avocado
Basil Annual culinary herbs
Bean sprouts Sprouts
Beets Beetroot
Belgian endive Chicory
Bell pepper Pepper
Bhendi Okra
Bhindi Okra
Boy-toyo Bok choy
Cactus fruit Prickly pear
Cactus pad Nopalitos
Cactus pear Prickly pear
Caimito Sapodilla
Calabaza Pumpkins
Calabrese Broccoli
Canary melon Honey Dew Melon
Cantelope Netted melon
Carambola Star fruit
Casaba melon Honey Dew Melon
Cassave Cassava
Cay mang cut Mangosteen
Chervil Annual culinary herbs
Chico mamey Sapodilla
Chico zapote Sapodilla
Chiku Sapodilla
Chile pepper Pepper
Chinese apple Pomegranate
Chinese chard Bok choy
Chinese chive Perennial culinary herbs
Chinese date plum Persimmon
Chinese long bean Bean
Chinese okra Luffa
Chinese pear Asian pear
Chive Perennial culinary herbs
Ciku Sapodilla
Claytonia Salad greens
Cocoyam Taro
Collards Greens for cooking
Coriander Annual culinary herbs
Corn salad Salad greens
Crenshaw melon Honey Dew Melon
Custard apple Avocado
Daikon Radish
Dandelion Salad greens
Dasheen Taro
Date Plum Persimmon
Dill Annual culinary herbs
Dilly Sapodilla
Duku Longkong
Dulian Durian
Duren Durian
Duyin Durian
Eddoe Taro
Elderberry Currant
Escarole Endive and Escarole
Field salad Salad greens
Filbert Hazelnut
Fire dragon fruit Dragon fruit
Flat bean Bean
French bean Bean
French sorrel Salad greens
Garden sorrel Salad greens
Gooseberry Currant
Globe artichoke Artichoke, globe
Collard greens Greens for Cooking
Gombo Okra
Green bean Bean
Green cabbage Cabbage
Green onion Onion
Grosse sapote Sapodilla
Groundnut Peanut
Gumbo Okra
Hamburg parsley Parsley
Husk tomato Tomatillo
Japanese pear Asian pear
Wax apple Java plum
Kadu Durian
Kale Greens for cooking
Kang kong Water convolvulvus
Kong xin cai Water convolvulvus
La pitahaya rouge Dragon fruit
Lady’s finger Okra
Lamb’s lettuce Salad greens
Langsat Longkong
Lanson Longkong
Lychee Litchi
Long bean Bean
Lucuma Sapodilla
Malanga Taro
Malay apple Wax apple
Mamey Sapodilla
Mandioca Cassava
Manggistan Mangosteen
Mangis Mangosteen
Mangkhut Mangosteen
Mangostan Mangosteen
Mangostanier Mangosteen
Mangostao Mangosteen
Manggustan Mangosteen
Manioc Cassava
Marjoram Perennial culinary herbs
Marmalade fruit Sapodilla
Matai Waterchestnut
Melon, Honeydew Honeydew
Melon, Netted Netted melon
Mesetor Mangosteen
Miner’s lettuce Salad greens
Mongkhut Mangosteen
Mung bean sprouts Sprouts
Muskmelon Netted melon
Mustard cabbage Bok choy
Mustard greens Greens for cooking
Nachi Asian pear
Nasberry Sapodilla
Néspero Sapodilla
Noplaes Nopalitos
Oregano Perennial culinary herbs
Oriental pear Asian pear
Oxheart cabbage Cabbage
Oyster plant Salsify
Pak-choy Bok choy
Pake boong Water convolvulvus
Pak-tsoi Bok choy
Palta Avocado
Paprika Pepper
Peppermint Perennial culinary herbs
Pichi Arazá fruit
Pitahaya Dragon fruit
Pitaya roja Dragon fruit
Pod bean Bean
Quaio Okra
Quingumbo Okra
Rape Greens for cooking
Red beet Beet
Rian Durian
Rocket salad Salad greens
Roquette Salad greens
Rose apple Wax apple
Rose water apple Wax apple
Rosemary Perennial culinary herbs
Round sorrel Salad greens
Rucola Salad greens
Rugula Salad greens
Runner bean Bean
Rupina caspi Arazá fruit
Sage Perennial culinary herbs
Salad chervil Annual culinary herbs
Salad pear Asian pear
Sand apple Asian pear
Sapota Sapodilla
Sapote Sapodilla
Saurieng Durian
Savory Annual culinary herbs
Savoy cabbage Cabbage
Sementah Mangosteen
Semetah Mangosteen
Sha Li pear Asian pear
Shalea pear Asian pear
Shallot Onion
Snap bean Bean
Sororia Arazá fruit
Sorrel Salad greens
Spearmint Perennial culinary herbs
Spinach Greens for cooking
Sponge gourd Luffa
Spring onion Onion
Sprouting broccoli Broccoli
Star apple Sapodilla
Star fruit Carambola
Stinkvrucht Durian
Stinky rose Garlic
Strawberry pear Dragon fruit
String bean Bean
Sugar pea Pea
Summer savory Annual culinary herbs
Summer squash Squash
Sunchokes Jerusalem artichoke
Swedes Rutabaga
Swedish turnips Rutabaga
Sweetsop Sapodilla
Sweet cherry Cherry, sweet
Sweet pepper Pepper
Table beet Beet
Taisai Bok choy
Tamarindo Tamarind
Tangerine Mandarin and Tangerine
Tannier Taro
Tarragon Perennial culinary herbs
Thang loy Dragon fruit
Thureen Durian
Thurian Durian
Thyme Perennial culinary herbs
Tree tomato Tamarillo
Turnip-rooted cabbage Kohlrabi or Rutabaga
Turnip greens Greens for cooking
Vegetable oyster Salsify
Water cabbage Water convolvulvus
White celery mustard Bok choy
White sapote Sapodilla
Whitloof Chicory
Winter purslane Salad greens
Winter spinach Water convolvulvus
Yard-long bean Bean
Yellow pitaya Dragon fruit
Yellow wax bean Bean
Yuca Cassava
Zapote Sapodilla
Zucchini Squash

Thanks for reading!  Banana Jim

Feel free to email us with any questions.

Posted in Ripening | Leave a comment

Vertical Airflow Pre-Coolers™ Increase Capacity without Increasing Building Size

Vertical Airflow Pre-Coolers™ can help grower-packers, to greatly increase throughput, without increasing building size.

Because Vertical Airflow precoolers can be built for 2-pallets-high, they can double the throughput of a cooling facility, in the same floor space being used now.

“We think this is the future of the industry,” explained Global’s founder, Jim Still.  “Vertical airflow pre-coolers cost a little more than tarp tunnels, but the advantages are overwhelming.”

The vertical airflow pre-coolers also require a smaller footprint, or floor space, than do tarp tunnels, saving even more warehouse or cold room real estate.

“Grower-packers can dramatically increase precooling capacity,” Still continued, “by installing our vertical precoolers, with pallet racking, so they can precool two-pallets-high.”

“So our customers can more than double their daily cooling capacity,” Still explained, “without having to build expensive additions, or deal with other time-consuming and expensive issues including zoning, permits, land conversion, building construction, and related.”

The vertical airflow design also provides for more-uniform temperature reduction, as all pallets receive the same temperature and pressure airflow.

“Pre-cooling” – which is the term for quickly reducing the temperature of fresh harvested fruit and vegetables, to ideal temperatures – greatly helps to extend the shelf life and net weight to sell, of almost all fresh produce.

Global Cooling is a leading supplier of refrigeration designs to fresh fruit companies in the Philadelphia region, and exports worldwide.

Precooling information can be found at:

For a project-specific quotation, go to:

Or email:

Two-high vertical airflow precoolers
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Mango Ripening

To facilitate successful marketing of mangoes using conventional packaging and postharvest handling methods, mangoes destined for import into the USA are harvested at the mature green stage while still firm.

The fruit are then ripened after they arrive in the USA by the wholesaler, retailer, or consumer (Kader and Mitcham, 2008). Kader and Mitcham note that sales of mangoes increase if ready-to-eat fruit are available at retail markets.

One of the challenges to successful marketing of mangoes is their limited shelf-life (typically 14 to 28 days at the mature-green stage and up to a week at the ripe stage). Postharvest technology that would extend the shelf-life of mangoes without adversely affecting their quality at consumption would be of considerable value to the industry.

Factors Affecting Ripening:


Temperature management is the most critical factor in the management of ripening in mature-green mangoes. Paull and Chen (2004) indicate that holding the fruit in the temperature range of 20 to 23 °C (68.0 to 73.4 °F) provides the best appearance, palatability and decay control when ripening mangoes. Kader and Mitcham (2008) indicate that holding the fruit between 15.5 to 18°C (60 to 65°F) during ripening provides the most attractive skin color, however the flavor remains tart unless the fruit are held an additional 2-3 days at 21-24°C (70-75°F). If mangoes are held at 27-30°C (80-86°F) during ripening, the skin of the fruit becomes mottled and the fruit acquire a strong flavor. Ripening is retarded when mangoes are held above 30°C (86°F). Mature-green mangoes can be held at 10 to 13°C (50 to 55°F) for 14 to 28 days (Paull and Chen, 2004). Ripe mangoes can be held at 10 to 13°C (50 to 55°F) for up to one week.

Being a tropical fruit, mangoes are subject to chilling injury if held below 13°C (55°F) for mature green mangoes, and below 10°C (50 °F) for partially ripe mangoes (Kader and Mitcham, 2008). Ripe mangoes can be held in air storage at 10°C (50 °F) for a few days without chilling injury. Kader and Mitcham note that, in order to avoid the risk of chilling injury to the fruit, it would be preferable to hold mature-green mangoes or mangoes at the breaker stage in a controlled atmosphere chamber with 4% oxygen (with the balance of the atmosphere being nitrogen) and a temperature of 15°C (59°F) than in a normal air environment at 10°C (50 °F) when attempting to delay ripening. The humidity of the air in the ripening or storage facility should be in the 90 to 95% range to avoid fruit dehydration (shrivel).

Hatton et al (1965) reported that ripening and softening rates of Florida mango cultivars increased as temperature increased from 16 to 27C (60.3 to 80.6 F), but the best temperature range was 21 to 24C (69.8 to 75.2 F). Mangos ripened at 27C (80.6 F) and higher temperatures had strong flavors and molted skin (Soule and Harding, 1956; Hatton et al, 1965). Mangos produce relatively low levels of ethylene, but respond to exogenous ethylene applications. Campbell and Malo (1969) found that ripening of mature-green mangos was accelerated in response to ethylene released from 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon). Exposure of Florida mango cultivars picked at the mature-green stage to 20-100 ppm ethylene for 24 hours results in faster and more uniform ripening at 21C (69.8 F) and 92-95% relative humidity (Barmore, 1974). Barmore and Mitchell (1977) reported that having ready-to-eat mangos with better color and aroma at retail stores increased sales. The benefits of ethylene-induced ripening were recently reported for ‘Ataulfo’ mangos (Montalvo et al, 2007).
The rate of ripening in mangoes can be accelerated by treating the fruit with ethylene at 100 ppm in a low (below 1%) carbon dioxide environment for a 12 to 24 hour period (Kader and Mitcham, 2008). The fruit will then ripen in 5 to 9 days, depending upon cultivar, if held at 18 to 22°C (65 to 72°F).

Thanks for reading!

More info here:

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The 80/20 Guide to Better Cold Chain Management

The book “The 80/20 Principle” has been a best seller for many years.

Many have found that it is possible to achieve 80% of the benefits with only 20% of the effort.

This also applies to Cold Chain Management, we believe.

Very few companies today are planning large capital investments, to improve their cold chain operations (pre-cooling, cold storage, ripening rooms, ethylene control, humidifiers, etc.)

But just about all companies can benefit from making some simple changes to how they use what they already have.

These steps can reduce shrink, improve quality and shelf life, and reduce electrical costs.

They can also reduce claims, credits, repack, and rejections, further helping the bottom line, and adding value to your brand.

To get your free copy of “The 80/20 Guide to Better Cold Chain Management”, visit, or go directly to the request form…Get Your Free Report.

Thanks for reading!

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