To facilitate successful marketing of mangoes using conventional packaging and postharvest handling methods, mangoes destined for import into the USA are harvested at the mature green stage while still firm.
The fruit are then ripened after they arrive in the USA by the wholesaler, retailer, or consumer (Kader and Mitcham, 2008). Kader and Mitcham note that sales of mangoes increase if ready-to-eat fruit are available at retail markets.
One of the challenges to successful marketing of mangoes is their limited shelf-life (typically 14 to 28 days at the mature-green stage and up to a week at the ripe stage). Postharvest technology that would extend the shelf-life of mangoes without adversely affecting their quality at consumption would be of considerable value to the industry.
Factors Affecting Ripening:
Temperature management is the most critical factor in the management of ripening in mature-green mangoes. Paull and Chen (2004) indicate that holding the fruit in the temperature range of 20 to 23 °C (68.0 to 73.4 °F) provides the best appearance, palatability and decay control when ripening mangoes. Kader and Mitcham (2008) indicate that holding the fruit between 15.5 to 18°C (60 to 65°F) during ripening provides the most attractive skin color, however the flavor remains tart unless the fruit are held an additional 2-3 days at 21-24°C (70-75°F). If mangoes are held at 27-30°C (80-86°F) during ripening, the skin of the fruit becomes mottled and the fruit acquire a strong flavor. Ripening is retarded when mangoes are held above 30°C (86°F). Mature-green mangoes can be held at 10 to 13°C (50 to 55°F) for 14 to 28 days (Paull and Chen, 2004). Ripe mangoes can be held at 10 to 13°C (50 to 55°F) for up to one week.
Being a tropical fruit, mangoes are subject to chilling injury if held below 13°C (55°F) for mature green mangoes, and below 10°C (50 °F) for partially ripe mangoes (Kader and Mitcham, 2008). Ripe mangoes can be held in air storage at 10°C (50 °F) for a few days without chilling injury. Kader and Mitcham note that, in order to avoid the risk of chilling injury to the fruit, it would be preferable to hold mature-green mangoes or mangoes at the breaker stage in a controlled atmosphere chamber with 4% oxygen (with the balance of the atmosphere being nitrogen) and a temperature of 15°C (59°F) than in a normal air environment at 10°C (50 °F) when attempting to delay ripening. The humidity of the air in the ripening or storage facility should be in the 90 to 95% range to avoid fruit dehydration (shrivel).
Hatton et al (1965) reported that ripening and softening rates of Florida mango cultivars increased as temperature increased from 16 to 27C (60.3 to 80.6 F), but the best temperature range was 21 to 24C (69.8 to 75.2 F). Mangos ripened at 27C (80.6 F) and higher temperatures had strong flavors and molted skin (Soule and Harding, 1956; Hatton et al, 1965). Mangos produce relatively low levels of ethylene, but respond to exogenous ethylene applications. Campbell and Malo (1969) found that ripening of mature-green mangos was accelerated in response to ethylene released from 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon). Exposure of Florida mango cultivars picked at the mature-green stage to 20-100 ppm ethylene for 24 hours results in faster and more uniform ripening at 21C (69.8 F) and 92-95% relative humidity (Barmore, 1974). Barmore and Mitchell (1977) reported that having ready-to-eat mangos with better color and aroma at retail stores increased sales. The benefits of ethylene-induced ripening were recently reported for ‘Ataulfo’ mangos (Montalvo et al, 2007).
The rate of ripening in mangoes can be accelerated by treating the fruit with ethylene at 100 ppm in a low (below 1%) carbon dioxide environment for a 12 to 24 hour period (Kader and Mitcham, 2008). The fruit will then ripen in 5 to 9 days, depending upon cultivar, if held at 18 to 22°C (65 to 72°F).
Thanks for reading! Jim@GlobalRipening.com
More info here: http://globalripening.com/mango.html